Has a wide distribution, often manifested in the form of epidemic outbreaks. The disease can be due to all sorts of fungi of the genus Trichophyton and Microsporum.
The clinical picture of fungal infections of the scalp is determined by the ecology of the pathogen, how the elements of the fungus in the hair and the severity of the inflammatory reaction develops in the skin in response to the introduction of the fungus.
Superficial disease, the scalp – usually occurs in children aged 6-10 years, at least – 1 5 and 11-15 years. Many patients during adolescence, the infection has a tendency to self-resolution. If not, then there is the so-called chronic disease, the scalp, was observed mainly in adult women.
The source of infection in superficial diseases of the scalp are a sick person and the things that it touches (hats, scarves, combs, brushes, scissors, bedding, etc.).
The clinical picture of the. The scalp lesions are formed mild redness and mild peeling of the skin, which is irregular rounded shape the vague and fuzzy boundaries. A typical symptom is the thinning hair damage that do not cause hair loss. Some hair cut off level 2-3 mm above the skin surface and has the shape of a hemp with a grayish color; others are cut directly out of the mouth of the hair follicle, and has the appearance of "black". It was broken, so the hair is easier to identify the pathogen.
Erythemal-the bubble shape is characterized by the appearance of scattered, is not very accurately defined pink plaques, slightly above the skin level and is full of small bubbles. Then there is a little peeling, and place in a small bubble of light brown. Hair cut off level with the surface of the skin.
Impetigious form occurs in those cases when the surface of the disease, the scalp, complicated by a secondary infection. The skin of the scalp thus covered with a crust and resemble impetigo.
Chronic "black-spotted" disease of the scalp, is usually a continuation of the surface of the disease in childhood, has not reached puberty. A disease of the scalp resistant to chronic almost exclusively in adult women, which, as a rule, are endogenous predisposing factors: dysfunction of the gonads, thyroid gland, autonomic disorders, vitamin deficiency, etc.
The disease occurs for the most part were destroyed, without knowing the patient and others. Often the reason for the investigation of adult women have the appearance of a family of sick children or grandchildren.
In some areas there are pockets of scrub with fuzzy boundaries and a piece of hair. Sometimes the disease is manifested in the form of small dots, with a dense shell at the mouth of the hair follicles. The most pathognomonic for the clinical symptoms have broken skin at the level of the hair – the so-called "black spots".
Very rarely a superficial disease, the scalp becomes inflammatory in nature, the appearance of pustules, penetrating.
Isolated from a chronic disease, the scalp is very rare. As a rule, the infectious process is common and, together with loss of scalp damage has been detected, smooth skin and body, palms, soles of the feet.
A disease of the scalp is celebrated almost exclusively in children, adult patients make up only 10-12 %. Infection in children occurs most often at the age of 1 to 13, rarely 15 years. During puberty in all patients, spontaneous recovery occurs.
The disease is highly contagious like children and animals; groups of children (schools, nurseries, kindergartens) it can occur in the form of epidemic outbreaks.
Sources of infection and routes of transmission of infection disease caused by a fungus, such as a superficial disease of the scalp. The main sources of human infection, the zoo mushrooms are the sick dogs and cats.
The clinical manifestations of the disease develops after an incubation period, which lasts on average 4-6 weeks.
Around the hair on top has been formed, which gradually increase in size, capturing large areas of the skin, scalp. Inflammatory changes in the lesions are mild. Sometimes at the beginning of the disease is the appearance of bubbles of sulphur concentrations, sometimes covered with crusts.
At the height of its development the disease is characterized by the presence of scalp right 1-2 large rounded or oval shape, sharply limited, there is no tendency to unite colonies. The skin around these lesions is slightly swollen and densely covered with greyish-white coating (like flour). All the hair damage, with a height of 4-6 mm above the skin level and accurately cut, it is areas of baldness. On the edge of the damage to the hair is easy to break. Removed hairs at the base covered with a loose white cloth, so that they resemble a glass rod, first dipped in glue and then fine sand.
Favus is a chronic fungal disease that starts in childhood and, not having a preference for self-medication, often continuing for adults. Favus affects mostly the side of the head, approximately 20 % of cases the process of the nails and the much less – smooth skin.
The main cause of Favus is Trichophyton schonleinii.
The source of the infection Favus is a sick person, rarely sick animals (mouse, cat).
Infection Favus promote poor sanitary conditions, poor personal hygiene, poor nutrition, and certain habits, for example, extended constant wearing of headgear for religious and other reasons.
The clinical picture of Favus consists of three main symptoms:
- education on the skin particularly Favus morphological elements of the rash, the so-called. flap-sculling, which is a pure culture of the fungus;
- losing hair fall out;
- the formation of scar atrophy, and permanent alopecia of the head.
Sculling is formed the appearance of the dry composition, of a bright yellow color, which hair. In the long course of the disease without treatment sculling merge, forming a solid, yellowish crusts, baked reminiscent of a honeycomb (hence the name favus, "cell"). sculling is tightly attached to the skin, with great effort, to remove individual loose parts, leaving behind inflamed bright pink, smooth, slightly moist erosion.
On the scalp, in addition to the typical sculling form, found a kind of Favus. Rare suppurative form of the disease.
The deep disease of the scalp, is usually caused by zoophilic trichophyton.
Infection in humans occurs most often through direct contact with sick animals, less frequently through a variety of topics, which is impressed with the mushroom hair and scales of affected animals. Less healthy people infected patients with profound disease.
Penetration can be achieved with the size of 6-8 cm in diameter, has a bright red or blue color and sharply defined border. Multiple foci can achieve 5-6. Surface infiltration is filled with a large number of deep pustules and hair. Externally unchanged, the hair is often presented in a loose shell, because deep purulent inflammation.
Sometimes the disease begins with the appearance of blisters, blisters or skin peeling.
Patients complain of more or less sharp pain in the damage. Due to the absorption of decomposition products of fungi and lysed red blood tissue becomes the intoxication of the patient: there is a feeling of malaise, weakness, headache, body temperature rises, sometimes up to 38-39 °C, to develop regional lymphadenitis.
Deep disease is an acute, usually disappear within 2-3 months. after the formation of infiltrates. The healing takes place scars, great damage, leading to permanent pattern baldness.