What is psoriasis? Otherwise it is known as psoriasis. This is a complex infectious-inflammatory process localized mainly in the tissues of the dermis (hands, back, etc.). Considered to be a kind of skin disease. It is characterized by the formation of red bumps on the skin (papules), that over time merge together to form larger lesions.
The disease incidence varies from 0.1-3%. The average prevalence - 2.5% of the total population of the planet. Disease wake up the process the most vulnerable persons who live in civilized States. Sure about is described in the pathology know anything: etiology, pathogenesis, all these questions that there is no single answer. There are only guesses and theories. What you should know-a disease of psoriasis?
Psoriasis - causes the formation of
The above stated disease differs multifactoriality and polyethiologic. In practice, this means that the causes of psoriasis are often in the role of different factors. The immediate reason is to reduce the life cycle of epidermal cells: normal structure of the dermis "live" about a month and a half, while the scaly lichen, this season has been reduced to several days.
In the end, the amount of cell death is greater than the intensity of their updates. The scales of the epidermis to shed, forming large tumors and cause irritation.
- Disorders of the metabolism. According to the first theory of psoriasis (picture symptoms and treatment in adults, which are presented in this article) was born, when the reaction is slower metabolism. It should be noted that many patients expressed increased levels of cholesterol, indicating changes in lipid metabolism. In this context, disease can be regarded as a "cholesteric diathesis". The imbalance observed in the structure of vitamin and mineral metabolism: the typical clinical picture includes a lack of vitamins, And vitamin C content increased. Some may play a role in hypothyroidism (insufficient thyroid function), lack of sex hormones;
- The genetic factor. Must be one of the reasons formation of disease. Charge no psoriasis (picture symptoms and treatment in adults is presented in later), and a predisposition to it. Geneticist install, if the old uplink was a person suffering from scaly ringworm, the risk the offspring will rise to 25%. When he is sick and both parents, the probability of 75% of the sick and children. Proven 70% of patients, a dermatologist who has confirmed the diagnosis is a positive family history;
- Autoimmune disease theory. Today is considered the most authoritative and academic. The hypothesis States that at some point the immune system of the patient fails, the result of which the protective system takes healthy cells for dangerous "intruders". Began active development of white blood cells and other immune cells, that destroy the structure of the dermis. Based on the pathology is the presence of source of chronic infection: can we talk about diseases of the throat, nasopharynx, etc. Current blood or lymph pathogenic flora is transported to the skin, the formation of new lesions. If you believe the theories that we talk about a delayed immune response;
- The infectious hypothesis. Until recently was considered the most reliable and undeniable. Its essence lies in the idea of the shingles as infectious contagious disease. Guilt is "imputed" and staphylococci and streptococci, and spirochetes, as it turned out, which has a direct connection with psoriasis is not contagious from one person to another, that the evidence in favor of noninfectious origin.
All the presented theories have a grain of truth. This problem is to keep complex, polietiologic disease. You can also talk to multiple precipitating factors. They are the triggers (the cause of manifestation or relapse), it helps to cure psoriasis:
- Climate change;
- Psoriasis - frequent stress. It is assumed that the role of the development of pathology is a hormonal imbalance: active cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine;
- Alcohol abuse;
- Medication. Primarily anti-inflammatory, vitamins, cytostatics;
- Damage to the epidermis.
The causes of the disease are many. Understand, they can only care specialist.
Classification of the disease is possible for four reasons: the shape, the nature of the flow, stage, and localization.
In the form of:
- Pustular form;
- Non-vascular form.
The current formulas are:
- Generalized type (pustular psoriasis). Psoriasis is rare, not exceeding 1% of cases. Characterized by rapid, aggressive course. In a short time on the skin appear red spots, confluent into one damage. The general location of the pathological process: the groin, the arms sector, the anatomical bends of the limbs;
- Exudative form. Developed secondary lesions in patients with disorders of the thyroid gland, diabetes. This form is characterized by the exudation of the liquid component of the blood in the formation of the wound surface. When you remove the layer of skin exposing the affected area of the skin with the release of large amounts of fluid;
- Plaque-shaped type. The most common form of the disease. Found in 85% of cases. The "Classic" form of psoriasis begins with the appearance of the dermis one or more red papules covered with dead skin cells. In the future several months or years separate plots merge together. Localization: hands, to bend the limbs, scalp, etc.;
- Atypical form. It only happens rarely. It is characterized by atypical localization of papules;
- Teardrop. Gets its name from the shape of the plaques.
- The hands and feet;
- The body;
Separately, these forms do not occur.
- In the early stages. The disease manifests itself in the formation of a small "pimple" - or spot-rounded, red or purple. Legs bluish. Surface papules covered with silvery scales peeled off, which is poorly connected to the dermis, and it can be easily pulled out of the mechanical impact - all these psoriasis;
- Step progression. The clinical picture is taken. Formed fresh papules, over all the red spots merge together to form factions. The skin in the affected areas is red, the shapes erythematous halo. Unlike plaques in the early stage, the progression of plaque do not have clear boundaries and smooth shape;
- Stationary phase. A long scaly lichen. At this stage, the formation of new lesions anymore, old pimples fade and cease to increase in volume. Extensive growth stops.
Sometimes isolated and in decline stage, when the blood platelets decrease in size.
Pathognomonic for recurrent, cyclic course. Each new cycle is characterized by four stages.
The clinical picture is typical. Symptoms of "classic" psoriasis are:
- The formation of papules is psoriasis. The diameter of the redness 1 mm-3 cm. In typical cases the process is localized on the hands, scalp, back;
- A horny thickening of the skin. The Dermis in the affected areas gets tough, is formed similar to the corn growths. In remission, when the redness goes, Horny growths continue;
- The feeling of itching, burning the affected areas of the skin. Because of the infiltrative process, to which the receptors of the skin itching. There is a reflex to scratch psoriatic plaques;
- The development of cracks in the skin.
With the defeat of nails observed:
- Field ulcers of the nail plate;
- Change the color of the nails type of fungus;
- Disorders structure of the nail.
Psoriasis - a systemic disease during which is celebrated the total defeat of all body systems. Advanced can be seen, and generalized symptoms of the disease:
- Hypo - or hyperthermia, because the immune system reaction;
- Disorders of thyroid function (overweight, feeling the heat, tide);
- Mental disorders (induced schizophreniform psychosis);
- Redness in the joints, pain in the extremities (psoriatic arthritis).
Separately should stay psoriatic arthritis origin. This disease (like psoriasis) is an aggressive rate the following symptoms:
- Redness in the joints;
- The local temperature rise (caused by the inflammation of the anatomical structure);
- Violation of the functional activity of the affected joint;
- Feeling the pressure, "tight glove," all of that psoriasis;
- Pain, aggravated at night and subsiding this afternoon.
Specific manifestations depend on the type and stage of the pathological process.
The severity of the disease
There are three main degree. Criteria for their separation is the severity of the existing disease-causing process and the wide-ranging damage.
- Easy psoriasis. The papules of psoriasis are isolated or absent. There is a small sign of itching of the skin, body temperature normal, generalized no symptoms. Formed in isolated areas of hyperemia of the skin bright, smooth contours. The surface of the dermis seem to light the skin flakes that resemble dandruff. The general area of damage is less than 3% of the whole body;
- Moderate ringworm. The volume of extensive growth psoriatic changes are expressed and constitute about 3-10% of body surface area. Tile has a number, separated from each other, the conglomerates are formed. There is a slight increase in temperature with subfebrile values of the heat meter (around 37-37.5 degrees);
- Severe psoriasis is a psoriasis in a different form. The affected area of skin more than 10% of the body. The diameter of the psoriatic plaques is several centimeters. Part of the pathogenic process of several, combined into a single complex. Pronounced redness, swelling of the dermis.
There is another method for determining the severity of the process of the so-called PASI index (PASI), psoriasis:
This is a multi-factor scale to take into account all the information in the system. It is considered the most accurate technique to determine the complexity of the passage.
Quality of life for patients
Ringworm-defined type refers to a severe systemic diseases. As with any complex disease, zoster significantly reduces the quality of life of patients, such as the data of numerous studies.
So, as the patients themselves, they learn to live with the problem, however, is the difficulty in several areas:
- Of their professional activities. Psoriatic arthritis, constant itching, and other factors interfere with the normal physical work;
- In the domestic sphere. In particularly difficult cases, patients who are not yet able to care for themselves;
- The field of leisure. A person may not engage in certain sports, the experience of psychological discomfort, because of the unaesthetic appearance of the skin.
We need to talk to stamp of disease. Surrounding the fear of its contagiousness, it greatly affects the self-esteem of the patient. In addition to the physical discomfort and even mental notes. For obvious reasons, individuals deprived often fall into depression, seek social isolation.
How to cure psoriasis? Treatment must be comprehensive. First of all, we talk about the medical effects on the body. Is assigned to the following groups of drugs:
- DZ-vitamin preparations. Is considered to be quite safe, because they do not have serious side effects. There is a strong anti-proliferative effects, reducing the division rate of skin cells. This includes: Ministers, Oksidevit, Aquadetrim;
- Retinoids. Dangerous drugs, with serious side effects. However, they can be the answer to the question, how to improve psoriasis. Trade names: accutane, Acitretin, Soriat;
- Suppressors of immunity. Nerve, Methotrexate, Cyclosporine;
- Finally, the answer to the question "how to treat psoriasis developed" may be the corticosteroids: Prednisone, Dexamethasone, etc..
Also practiced methods of physiotherapy:
Answers to the question, how to improve psoriasis there are many. To determine the tactics of treatment can be a doctor. There are many nuances, it all depends on the severity of the disease and its localization.